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KCSE Agriculture Paper 1 2013 PDF: Free Past papers


KCSE Agriculture Paper 1 2013 PDF: If You are among the Candidates that will be writing Agriculture in the upcoming KCSE exams this year, review the past paper 2, It is very helpful. After a successful download of the PDF of KCSE Agriculture Past Paper 1 for 2013, start practicing the KCSE Agriculture Paper 1 2013 consistently to see good results.

KCSE Agriculture Paper 1 2013 PDF: Free KNEC Past Papers

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KCSE Agriculture PAPER 1 2013 with Answers

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Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Agriculture Past Paper 

KCSE Agriculture Paper 1 2013

Agriculture KCSE 2013 Questions and Answers

AGR paper 1

SECTION A ( 30 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

(1) State four reasons for inter-cropping. (2 marks)

(2) Give four advantages of intensive farming. (2 marks)

(3) Give four reasons why land should be prepared early in readiness for planting. (2 marks)

(4) State four reasons for deep ploughing during land preparation. (2 marks)

(5) State two conditions that must exist for a market to be purely competitive. (1 mark)

(6) Distinguish between grading and standardization in agricultural marketing. (2 marks)

(7) State our benefits of agro-forestry to a maize crop. (2 marks)

(8) Distinguish between intensive hedgerow and border planting forms of agroforestry.

(9) What is meant by each of the following terms:

(a) Mixed cropping

(b) mono cropping

(c) inter cropping

(10) State four advantages of timely planting. (2 marks)

(11) State four advantages of row planting in crop production. (2 marks)

(12) State four reasons why a nursery is important in crop production. (2mark)

(13) Distinguish between monopoly and monopsomy. (2 marks)

(14) Name the plant part used for vegetative propagation of each of the following plants:

(a) cassava

(b) sisal

(c) pyrethrum

(d) sweet potatoes.

(15) State four characteristics of a good vegetable seedling. (2 marks)

SECTION (20 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

(16) The photograph below illustrates a method of irrigation.

KCSE Agriculture Paper 1 2013 PDF: Free Past papers 1

(a) Identify the method of irrigation illustrated above. (1 mark)

(b) State two maintenance practices that are carried out on the equipment used in the method illustrated above_ (2 marks)

(c) Give one advantage drip irrigation has over the method of irrigation illustrated above in crop disease control. ( 1 mark)

17 The table below shows a format of at farm record.

KCSE Agriculture Paper 1 2013 PDF: Free Past papers 2

(a) Name the farm record illustrated above.( 1 mark)

(b) Give two uses of the farm record shown above. (2 marks)

18 The table below represents an account in a financial book of a poultry farmer.

KCSE Agriculture Paper 1 2013 PDF: Free Past papers 3

(a) identify the financial book. (1 mark)

(b) On 10th January 20ll . the poultry farmer bought 5 bags of layers mash worth Ksh. I000O/- and sold 100 trays of eggs for Ksh.2000O/- on 10 January 2011. Enter these transactions in the account above. (3 marks)

19 The following illustrations show different production function curves in agricultural economics. Study them and answer the questions that follow.

KCSE Agriculture Paper 1 2013 PDF: Free Past papers 4

(a) ldentify the production function curves labelled a and b. (2 marks)

a …………… ..

b …………… ..

(b) What does the law derived from the production function labelled C state? (1 mark)

(i) Which one of the three production function curves is rare in Agriculture? (1 mark)

(ii) Give a reason for your answer in (c)(i) above. (1 mark)

20 The following is a list of plant nutrients; Copper, Calcium, Nitrogen, Molybdenum, Zinc, Phosphorus. Carbon. Sulphur. Iron and Magnesium.

(a) Which of the above plant nutrients are:

(i) Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question

21(a) macro-nutrients

(i) micro—nutrients

(ii) fertilizer elements

(iii) liming elements.

SECTION c (40 marks)

(b) Explain eight cultural methods of soil and water conservation. (8 marks)

(c) Explain four ways in which:

(i) HIV/AIDS limits agricultural production (4 marks)

(ii) government policy improves agricultural production (4 marks)

(iii) low level of education and technology influences agriculture. (4 marks)

(22a) Explain seven physical methods of pest control. (7 marks)

(b) Explain eight factors that contribute to the competitive ability of weeds. (8 marks)

READ ALSO:  Review the KCSE Biology Past Paper 2 2015 with answers

(c) Describe the harvesting of coffee. (5 marks)

(23a) Describe the preparation and handling of stem cuttings when planting napier grass. (5 marks)

(b) Describe the production of onions under the following sub-headings:

(i) seedbed preparation (3 marks)

(ii) field management (4 marks)

(iii) harvesting. (3 marks)

(c) Give five reasons why land consolidation should be encouraged in Kenya. (5 marks)

KCSE Agriculture Paper 1 2013 Questions and Answers

KCSE Agriculture Marking scheme Paper 1 -- AGR paper 1

SECTION A (30 marks)

(1) Reasons for inter-cropping

  • Conserve soil/water (cover cropping);
  • Maximise production;
  • Maximise utilization of nutrients in the soil;
  • Control weeds;
  • Control pests/diseases;
  • Diversification’/spread risks
  • Maximise labour utilisation/save costs on labour.
  • Improve soil fertility if legumes are included.
  • Maximise utilisation of land.(2) Advantages of intensive farming
  • Increases production per unit area;
  • Farm supervision is easy:
  • Maximises utilization of available land;
  • Ideal for densely populated areas/small land holdings;
  • Utilizes technology to increase production.(3) Reasons for early land preparation
  • Allow time for weeds to dry and decompose;
  • Allow for proper soil aeration;
  • Allow timely planting / subsequent operations;
  • Allow time for soil clods to disintegrate/soften.(4) Reasons for deep ploughing
  • Facilitates aeration;
  • Facilitates drainage;
  • Breaks hard pans/facilitates water infiltration;
  • Bring up previously leached nutrients;
  • Facilitate development of deep rooted crops;
  • I Expose lower soil layers to weathering;
  • I Expose soil bone pests and disease agents.
  • Remove deeply rooted weeds.(5) Conditions for purely competitive market


  • Large number of sellers:
  • Large number of buyers;
  • Homogeneous product;
  • Same price for the product;
  • Free entry and exit from the market:
  • Buyers and sellers have perfect knowledge of market trends.(2 x 1/2= 1 mark)

    (6) Grading -- is the sorting of the produce into different lots.
    each with the same characteristics market quality while Standardization is the establishment of uniformity in the quality and quantity of the product.

    Mark as a whole 2 marks

    (7) Benefits of agroforestry to a maize crop.

  • Leguminous trees fix nitrogen into the soil:
  • Trees act as windbreaks:
  • Trees stabilize soil against soil erosion;
  • Leaf litter decompose to form humus/recycle nutrients:
  • Trees improve and act as water catchment areas/conserve water.4 x 1/2= 2 marks


  • Intensive hedgerow:- trees or shrubs are planted between rows of crops.
  • Border planting:- trees or shrubs are planted on the borders of the farm.Mark as a whole 2 marks

    (9) (a) Mixed cropping:- ls the growing of two or more crops on the same field but on different sections.

    (b) Mono cropping:- Is the growing of only one type of crop.

    (c) lnter cropping:- ls the growing of two or more crops in the same field at the same time.3 x 1 3 marks

    (10) Advantages of timely planting

  • Disease and pest control;
  • Benefit from nitrogen flash:
  • Weed control:
  • Maximises rainfall utilization by the crop:
  • Crop matures early when market prices are high/high demand.(4 x 1/2 =2 marks)

    (11) Advantages of row planting

  • Field operations can be mechanized;
  • Easy to establish plant population;
  • Low seed rate than broadcasting;
  • cultural practices/accept specific practices;
  • Ensures proper spacing
  • Ensures uniform germination of seeds.(4 x 1/2= 2 marks)

    (12) Importance of a nursery

  • Many seedlings can be produced in a small area;
  • Facilitates timely routine management practices:
  • best conditions for growth of seedlings:
  • Small seeds and delicate seedlings grow into healthy and vigorous seedlings to facilitate transplanting;
  • Reduced growth period in the field;
  • Excess seedlings can be sold for income:
  • Facilitate selection of healthy and vigorous/true to type seedlings for transplanting.(4 x 1/2= 2 marks)

    (13) (a)Monopoly:- Market dominated by only one seller:

    (b) Monopsony:- Market dominated by only one buyer. Mark as a whole 2 marks

    (14)(a) Cassava: -- stem cuttings/stems

    (b) Sisal: -- Bulbils

    -- Suckers

    pyre thrum: -- Splits

    (d) Sweet potatoes: -- Vines/stem cuttings

    4 x 11- 2 marks

    (15) Characteristics of a good vegetable seedling

  • Free from disease/pest/healthy;
  • Vigorous growing:
  • Free from physical deformities;
  • High yielding:
  • Correct stage of growth/height 10 -- 15 tall/4 -- 6 true leaves.4 x 1/2 =2 marks

    (16)(a) Sprinkler/overhead irrigation. 1 x 1 =l mark


  • Cleaning after use:
  • Unblocking blocked nozzles:
  • Lubricating rotating pans;
  • Repairing/replacing broken/wom out parts;
  • Proper storage after use:
  • Oiling to prevent rusting;
  • Tighten loose nuts.2 x 1= 2 marks


  • Drip irrigation does not wet the foliage hence controls fungal diseases l x l= 1 mark(17) (a)Health record; 1 x 1 =1 mark


  • Selection/culling;
  • Show health status:
  • Determination of treatment costs;
  • Show prevalence diseases;
  • Trace history of disease for effective treatment eg. drugs used, action taken;
  • Show schedules for routine practices e.g. vaccination. deworming, etc.. 2 x l 2 marks(18)Ledger 1 x 1 l mark

    19 (a)

    -- Increasing returns -production function curve.

    — Constant retums production function curve.

    2 x 1= 2 marks

    (b)The Law of diminishing returns.

    If successive units of one variable input are added to fixed quantities of other inputs, a point is reached where additional (marginal/extra) product per additional unit of input declines.

    (b)(ii) Other factors influence / limit agriculture production.

    1 x 1 =1 mark


  • Calcium:
  • Nitrogen;
  • Phosphorous;
  • Carbon:
  • Sulphur;
  • Magnesium.1 mark Mark as a_ whole


  • Copper;
  • Molybdenum;
  • Zinc;
  • Iron.( Mark as a whole 1 mark)

    (c)Fertilizer elements:- Nitrogen. Phosphorous & Potassium.

    Mark as a whole 1 mark

    (d)Liming elements:- Calcium; Magnesium and Sulphur.

    Mark as whole 1 mark

    SECTION C (40 marks)

    (a) Cultural soil and water conservation

  • Grass/Filter strips:- reduce speed of flowing water/filter soil;
  • Cover cropping:- prevents surface flow/reduces impact of rain drops/prevents evaporation/ volatilization;
  • Contour farming:- creates ridges of soil which hold up \vater/reduce speed of run-off;
  • Mulching:- reduces impact of rain drops/prevents evaporation/surface run-off:
  • Rotational grazing:— allows grass to recover for soil and water conservation:
  • Crop rotation:- maintain soil cover for protection against erosion/improves soil structure thus increasing infiltration:
  • Inter cropping:- provides adequate cover on the soil;
  • Strip cropping:- the different strips reduce speed of run-off/filter soil:
  • Grassed/vegetated waterways:- slow the speed of water/trap eroded soil:
  • Afforestation/Re-afforestation; Act as water catchments/stabilizes soil/canopy intercepts raindrops/wind;
  • Agroforestry -- stabilises soil/canopy intercepts raindrops/act as water catchment/wind;
  • Use of manures/fertilizers; Promotes vegetative growth which covers soil against evaporation and erosion;
  • Correct spacing of crops; Ensure adequate soil cover. 8 x 8 marks(b) (i) Shortage of labour; Lack of motivation to invest in agriculture
  • Increased cost of living leading to low investment in agriculture/lack of resources for Agricultural production.;
  • Government and NGOs are spending a lot of time and resources controlling the disease instead of investment in agriculture.
  • Lack of market for agricultual produce.4 x l =4 marks

    (ii) Establishment of national food security policy to supply free farm input to farmers to improve production:

  • Facilitate soil conservation;
  • Imposes laws to regulate quality of agriculture products;
  • lmposes laws to regulate production and sale of agricultural produce to ensure sustainability:
  • Imposes high taxes on imported agricultural products;
  • Providing subsidies on agricultural inputs, e.g. fertilizers;
  • Establishment of govemment agencies to supply inputs and market agricultural products;
  • Construction of bulky handling and storage facilities for agricultural products;
  • Funding research into new and improved agricultural production technologies:
  • Ensures control of parasites/diseases/weeds is done effectively:
  • Provision of extension services/education.4 x l= 4 marks

    (iii)Improper timing of routine practices;

  • Lack of agricultural skills
  • Low production of low quality I
  • Inappropriate decision -- making e.g. disease observation and control:
  • Delayed adoption of new and improved production technologies.
  • Lack of knowledge to apply / types and / of inputs;
  • Inability to collect market information.4 x l= 4 marks

    (22)(a)Physical Pest Control

  • Use of lethal temperature to kill the pests;
  • Proper drying of produce to make it hard for pest to penetrate;
  • Flooding drowns and kills pests;
  • Suffocation to kill the pests in air tight containers;
  • Physical killing ofthe pests /trapping and killing;
  • Use of scarecrows /scaring away the pests:
  • Use of physical barriers to prevent infestation by the pests;
  • Use of electromagnetic radiation to kill the pests.7 x 1 7 marks

    (b) Factors for competitive ability of weeds

  • Some produce large seed quantities to enhance survival chances;
  • Some remain viable in the soil for a long time to await favourable conditions to germinate
  • Some are easily and successfully dispersed to enhance chances of survival;
  • Some have ability to propagate vegetatively into new plants:
  • Some have extensive root system to enhance survival in drought conditions:
  • Some have adaptations to survive where \vater/nutrients are limited through water and food storage modifications
  • Some have a short life cyle which is completed early before adverse climatic conditions set in:
  • Some initate animals as a protective measure against grazing, trampling/some are tolerant to pests and diseases.
  • Some are heavy feeders they make food faster than crop establishes.
  • Some weeds have allelopathic effects which suppresses growth of other plants enhancing their survival.8 x 1 8 marks

    (b) Harvesting of Coffee

  • Pick red ripe ben’ies/cherries;
  • Spread the berries on sisal mats and sort them out into Grades l. 2 and 3 (Mbuni)
  • Deliver grades l and 2 to the factory for pulping same day;
  • Dry grade 3;
  • Deliver grade 3 to factory at the end of harvesting season:
  • Picking interval of 7 -- I4 days.5 x 1 5 marks

    (23) (a) Stem cuttings for Napier grass

  • Select cuttings from a desirable variety:
  • Select cuttings from healthy and high yielding mother plants;
  • Make cuttings with 2 -- 3 nodes:
  • Place cuttings in planting holes in a slanting manner:
  • Cover two nodes underground and one node above the ground.5 x l 5 marks

    (b) Production of onions

    (i) Clear the land;

  • Prepare the land early:
  • Plough/dig deeply and eradicate all weeds:
  • Harrow to a moderate tilth/tine tilth/appropriate tilth. 3 x 1 3 marks (ii)
  • Thinning in directly planted crops to reduce competition;
  • Weeding should be done carefully so not to damage shallow roots.
  • Remove excess soil from root region.
  • Do not compact the soil around the bulb:
  • Top dress with nitrogenous fertilizer/CAN at a rate of 250 Kg per ha three months after planting:
  • Spray with appropriate pesticide/chemical to control pests especially thrips;
  • Spray with fungicides or practice crop rotation to control fungal diseases;
  • Watering during dry spell/season.4 x 1 4 marks

    (iii) Harvest after 5 months;

  • Harvest when leaves start drying;
  • Break or bend the tops at the neck to hasten withering;
  • Dig up the bulb and leave them to dry under shade;
  • Tum daily to ensure uniform drying;
  • Store in slatted boxes;
  • Leave bulb to dry under shade.(c) Reasons for land Consolidation
  • Proper supervision
  • Saves time and travel costs between plots;
  • Easy to offer extension services on the actual and on-spot inspection of land;
  • Encourages sound farm planning and adoption of crop rotation programmes;
  • Encourages soil conservation and land improvement;
  • Encourages mechanization due to enlarged holdings;
  • Encourages construction of permanent structures/undertake long term project investments;
  • Enhances weed, pest and disease control.5 x 1 = 5 marks

If You want the marking schemes, send Us an email at: smartjohnene@gmail.com indicating your the subject and your name and We will guide You on How to get the documents.

KCSE Agriculture Paper 2 2013

->> Click Here to download Agriculture KCSE Paper 2 2013 PDF

KCSE Agriculture Paper 3 2013

->> Here are the KCSE Agriculture Paper 3 2013 exams that are available

Question 1


You are provided with the following:

a metre rule

3 optical pins

2 small wooden blocks

a stop watch

a stand, a boss and clamp

a piece of sellotape

Proceed as follows:

a) Using the two wooden blocks, clamp two optical pins about 4 cm apart in the stand so that they project out of the blocks in a horizontal plane.

(b) Using a piece of sellotape, attach the third optical pin across the metre rule at a distance x = 1O cm from the 50 cm mark. Now suspend the metre rule on the two clamped pins so that it can swing freely in a vertical plan with the third pin as the axis. (See figure 1)

(c) Displace the lower end of the metre rule slightly and let it oscillate as shown in the figure 1.

Measure and record in table l the time t(s) for 20 oscillations. (Correct to one decimal place).

(d) (i) Repeat the procedure in (b) and (c) for the values of X shown in table 1.

(ii) For each value of x shown in the table, determine the period T(s), correct to two decimal places, and complete the table. (The period T is the time for one complete oscillation).

(e) On the grid provided, plot a graph of T2X(y-axis) against X2 (origin not required). (5 marks)

(f) From the graph, determine:

(i) the slope S of the graph. (3 marks)

(ii) the value of constant r given that:

rS = 39.5 (2 marks)


You are provided with the following:

-- a converging mirror

-- a rectangular piece of manilla paper

-- a half meter rule

-- a stand, boss and clamp

-- a dropper

-- liquid Q

Proceed as follows:

(g) (i) Using the wooden blocks clamp the manilla paper in the stand so that it projects out of the blocks in a horizontal plane, about 30 cm above the bench.

(ii) Place the mirror on the bench so that its centre is vertically below the free end of the manilla paper.

(h) With your eye vertically above the free end of the manilla, observe its inverted diminished image appearing as in figure 2.

(i) Now adjust the height of the manilla vertically above the centre of the mirror until its width and that of the inverted image are equal as in figure 3.

Measure and record the distance L1 between the manilla paper and the bench. L1 = …………………….. ..cm (1 mark)

(j) Using the dropper provided put some liquid Q on the mirror so that its surface is about 3 cm in diameter. Repeat part (i). Measure and record the distance L2 between the manilla paper and the bench. L2 : ……..cm (1 mark)

(k) Determine constant k given that:

L1 = kL2 (2 marks)

Question 2

You are provided with the following:

four 10 Q resistors

a resistance wire labelled S mounted on a half metre rule

a resistance wire AB mounted on a metre rule

two dry cells and a cell holder

a centre zero galvanometer G

8 connecting wires each with a crocodile clip at one end

a jockey

a micrometer screw gauge

a switch

(a) Set up the circuit as in figure 4 in which R is nearA and S is near B. (R is a 10 Q resistor or an appropriate combination of 10-ohm resistors).

(b) Starting with a single 10 Q resistor as R, close the switch. Using the jockey tap wire AB briefly near end A and observe the deflection on the galvanometer. Now tap the wire near end B and again observe the deflection of the galvanometer. (The two deflections should be in opposite directions)

(c) Still with the 10 Q resistor as R, tap at various points along wire AB to obtain a point P at which the galvanometer shows zero deflection. Measure and record in table 2 the length L (m) between A and P. (Record L correct to 3 decimal places)

(d) Repeat part (c) to obtain L for other values of R shown in table 2. (6 marks)


(i) 1/L for all the values of L correct to 2 decimal places. (1 mark)

(ii) 1/R for all values of R correct to 3 decimal places. (1 mark)

On the grid provided, plot a graph of 1/L (y-axis) against 1/R (origin not required). (5 marks)

(i) Determine the slope n of the graph. (3 marks)

(ii) State the unit of n. (1 mark)

Using the micrometer screw gauge, measure and record the diameter D of wire S in metres. D : …………………………. .. m. (1 mark)

Determine the value of constant k given that 4k=rnD2n(3 marks)

You can access the marking shemes via the paper 2 page for this subject, go to the page via the link above with the description  “Click Here to download Agriculture KCSE Paper 2 2013 PDF” and scroll down and You will see the 2013 Marking schemes already provided.

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